An over abundance of nitrogen can delay flowering while a
deficiency can reduce yield.
Phosphorus is necessary for almost all
aspects of plant growth and is essential for flower and
Potassium is necessary for the formation of
sugars, starches, carbohydrates, protein synthesis and
cell division in roots and other parts of the plant.
Sulfur is a structural component and is
required for the production of chlorophyll.
Magnesium is necessary for seed
germination and the production of carbohydrates, sugars etc.
Calcium is a structural component of
cell walls and is necessary for cell growth and division.
Iron is essential for the young growing
plants and is necessary for many enzyme functions.
Manganese is involved in plant enzyme
activity for photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen
metabolism. In highly acid soils an over abundance of iron can result in
Boron is necessary for cell wall
formation, membrane integrity and calcium uptake. The
functions affected by boron include flowering, pollen
germination, fruiting, cell division, water relationships
and the movement of hormones.
Zinc is essential to carbohydrate
metabolism, protein synthesis and stem growth. Zinc
deficiency may lead to iron deficiency. Lowering soil pH
can result in an over abundance of zinc.
Copper is concentrated in roots of
plants and plays a part in nitrogen metabolism. An over
abundance of copper can cause toxicity.
Molybdenum is a structural component of
the enzyme that reduces nitrates to ammonia. Without it,
the synthesis of proteins is blocked and plant growth
Chlorine is involved in osmosis, the
ionic balance necessary for plants to take up mineral
elements and in photosynthesis.
Nickel is an essential trace element for
plants. It is required to break down urea to liberate the
nitrogen into a usable form for plants. Nickel is
required for iron absorption. Seeds need nickel in order
Sodium is involved in water movement and
ionic balance in plants.
Cobalt is required for nitrogen fixation
in legumes and in the root nodules of non-legumes. The demand
for cobalt is much higher for nitrogen fixation than for
Silicon is found as a component of cell
walls. Plants with supplies of soluble silicon produce
stronger and tougher cell walls.